Understanding Hypothyroidism: The Complete Guide

Some people develop goiters or swelling in their necks, which can be a sign of thyroid problems.

Triiodothyronine and thyroxine are the two primary thyroid hormones that are deficient in hypothyroidism. Deficiency of the thyroid gland can have different effects on the body. Some people develop goiters or swelling in their necks, which can be a sign of thyroid problems.


Another unusual reason for hypothyroidism is the pituitary gland not producing enough hormone, even when the thyroid gland itself is perfectly normal. When the pituitary gland does not create enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the thyroid does not have the “signal” to produce hormones. So it isn’t true.

Hypothyroidism symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Gaining weight, or having a hard time shedding pounds
  • Dry and coarse hair
  • Pale, dry skin with a rough texture.
  • thinning of the hair
  • Temperature intolerance (you can’t stand it when it’s colder than you are)
  • Muscle pains and cramps are common.
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Loss of memory
  • Menstruation irregularities
  • The libido is down.



The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ. It’s above the collarbones, in the front of the neck. Thyroid hormones regulate how every cell in the body uses energy. This is metabolism.

Hypothyroidism affects women and individuals over 50.

Thyroiditis is the main cause of hypothyroidism. Inflammation and swelling harm thyroid gland cells.

Among the causes are:

  • Thyroid immune system assault
  • Infections caused by viruses (cold)
  • Birthing (often called postpartum thyroiditis)

Hypothyroidism can be caused by:

  • Lithium, amiodarone, and certain chemotherapeutic drugs
  • Birth defects
  • Neck or brain radiation for various malignancies
  • Thyroid radioactive iodine treatment
  • Thyroidectomy: partial or total thyroidectomy
  • Sheehan syndrome occurs when a woman bleeds heavily during pregnancy or delivery, destroying the pituitary gland.
  • Pituitary surgery or tumor
  • Symptoms

Exams and Tests

It is possible that your thyroid gland will be found to be enlarged during a medical examination. The gland might be normal in size or smaller than normal. In addition, the exam might reveal:

  • Diastolic blood pressure is too high (second number)
  • thin and fragile hair
  • Coarse characteristics on the face
  • Cool-to-the-touch skin with a pale or dry appearance.
  • Responses that are out of the norm (delayed relaxation)
  • An increase in the size of the limbs.

Additionally, blood tests are conducted to determine your TSH and T4 levels.

You might also want to run these tests:

  • The amount of cholesterol in the blood
  • Blood count in its whole (CBC)
  • Enzymes in the liver
  • Prolactin
  • Sodium
  • Cortisol

Hyperthyroidism treatment

Hyperthyroidism is a disorder when your thyroid gland generates too much thyroid hormone. The goal of treatment is to normalize thyroid hormone production.
Treatment might induce persistent thyroid hormone deficiency. This is common following radioactive iodine therapy.

Surgical removal of your thyroid

Hypothyroidism occurs when the entire thyroid gland is removed due to thyroid issues. The main therapy is lifelong thyroid medication.
It is possible to create adequate hormones with only a piece of the thyroid gland removed. Thyroid medication dosage is determined by blood testing.

Radiation therapy

If you have head or neck cancer, lymphoma, or leukemia, you may have had radiation therapy. Radiation used to treat certain disorders may reduce or stop thyroid hormone production. This usually causes hypothyroidism.


Slowing of Metabolic Processes

As a result of delayed metabolism, hypothyroidism can cause a wide range of symptoms and indications, including:

  • Tiredness and drowsiness
  • Movement and speech are slowed down.
  • Irritability to the cold
  • A rise in body mass.
  • Rate of heartbeat
  • Slow reaction times
  • Constipation
  • When exercising, a feeling of exhaustion sets in.
  • Stiffness in the muscles is accompanied by muscle cramps.



Hypothyroidism can cause a multitude of medical issues if left untreated.


Hypothyroidism can cause goiter or thyroid enlargement. Your goiter might grow from a little enlargement with no symptoms to a huge enlargement with symptoms.

A big goiter might cause swelling or overall neck pain. Scarves or ties may be uncomfortably tight owing to a Your neck and/or throat may be painful. Occasionally, a goiter might block your windpipe or esophagus, making eating or breathing difficult.


The spongy structure in the middle of some bones, the bone marrow, cannot produce enough red blood cells when thyroid hormone is deficient. Anemia occurs as a result, resulting in symptoms such as:

Fatigue and a feeling of being out of sorts


Irregular or fast heartbeats

Feeling faint.



Insufficient thyroid hormone production impairs the body’s capacity to metabolize cholesterol. This can raise total and LDL cholesterol levels.

LDL cholesterol can build up in your arteries, causing blockages and heart attacks.

Other hypothyroidism-related cardiac issues include elevated blood pressure and fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion).


Hypothyroidism can cause myopathy (muscle illness). Myopathy caused by hypothyroidism causes muscular soreness, stiffness, and weakness, making ordinary tasks like rising from a chair, climbing stairs, or washing hair difficult.

Obstetrical Issues

As well as menstruation abnormalities, untreated hypothyroidism may increase the risk of pregnancy loss, placental abruption, premature birth, and infant mortality.