Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare, possibly deadly skin condition that manifests as flu-like symptoms as well as a blistering, painful skin rash that causes the skin to peel off in patches. Medication-induced diarrhea is the most common cause, however, infections and other factors can also contribute. The majority of the time, hospitalization is required, as is an antibiotic treatment for infection and supportive care.
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) symptoms include headache, cough, fever, body pains, and ocular irritation one to three weeks after taking a medication.
A flat red rash on the face, trunk, and neck develop a few days later, spreading to the rest of the body and blistering. SJS rash covers up to 10% of the body.
PAINFUL RASH SPREADS TO THE MOUTH, THROAT, EYES, It’s hard to urinate and swallow. A gut or respiratory tract infection can cause diarrhea and difficulties breathing.
- Rashes with blisters and sores
- Rashes on the throat, eyes, anus, and genital mucous membranes
- Blisters and swelling crusting eyes
- a painful mouth that drools
- Blistered mucous membranes urinating
It is believed that SJS is caused by drug reactions and infections.
The most prevalent cause of adverse drug reactions in adults is pharmaceutical interactions, with around 60 percent of instances being connected to specific prescriptions, according to a report published in the U.S. Pharmacist by Melissa A. Ruminski and colleagues. In fact, researchers have discovered more than 100 medicines that have the potential to cause SJS.
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is most commonly caused by viral infections in children, although adults can also get the condition as a result of a viral infection. Bacterial infections, which are less prevalent, can also cause an allergic response to occur.
The following infections have been related to SJS:
- Coxsackievirus is a kind of virus.
- It is caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).
- Herpes-complex virus (HSV)
Some variables might enhance a person’s likelihood of developing SJS. Genetics and the presence of other medical disorders are examples of such factors.
The following are risk factors:
- Autoimmune illnesses are a group of disorders that are caused by the immune system.
- Transplantation of bone marrow
- Females are more prone than males to get the disease.
- Specific human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are a result of genetics (HLAs)
- Transplantation of organs
- SJS has a previous history.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus is a kind of autoimmune disease.
- An immune system that is compromised
Diagnosis & Treatment
SJS has no particular test. Doctors will ask questions, collect blood samples, do a skin biopsy, and evaluate the rash.
SJS is usually treated at a hospital. Doctors will examine the medicines that caused the response and discontinue them. Because of the severity of the skin injury, certain patients may be treated in a hospital’s burn unit with particular precautions.
A patient may get a plasma exchange. Plasmolysis removes plasma from blood cells and platelets. This therapy may eliminate the medication or antibodies causing the response.
The rash will fade away after the medicine causing the response is withdrawn or the infection is cured. Skin will regrow in a few days.
SJS treatment focuses on symptom management and patient comfort. It may be:
- Antiseptic and anesthetic mouthwashes
- Skin inflammation: corticosteroids
- Eye ointments or drops
- A nasogastric tube delivers fluids and nutrients to the stomach through the nose.
- Painkillers for raw skin
- Dressings and removing dead skin
- Unscented moisturizers and calmers